What does cryogenic mean?

The word “cryogenic” refers to extremely cold temperatures ranging from -150°C to -273°C. An environment is considered to be cryogenic when gases begin to liquify. Cryogenics is an interesting field … Read more

Microbiologist testing sample under laminar air flow cabinet in quality control pharmaceutical cleanroom laboratory

What is a cleanroom?

Cleanrooms are engineered facilities that minimize the level of contaminants inside them. Because they control the number and size of particles in the room, cleanrooms enable specific research and manufacturing … Read more

What is a phase change material?

A phase change material (PCM) is a substance that absorbs and releases thermal energy over a period of time. PCMs work by undergoing the processes of melting and solidifying to … Read more

What is a wire harness?

Wire harnesses are everywhere — under the hood of every car and truck on the road, and in every plane, jet, and rocket in the sky. Wire harnesses are also … Read more

What is conductive heat transfer?

Heat transfer occurs in four ways: convection, conduction, radiation, and phase change. Conduction occurs when atoms or molecules interact with each other. It happens most frequently in solids but also … Read more

What is convective heat transfer?

Convective heat transfer refers to the movement of thermal energy within fluids. Convection occurs due to the bulk movement of molecules within the liquid, gas, or liquid-gas mixture. Initially, heat … Read more

Rusted pipe with aluminum jacket damaged by corrosion under insulation (CUI)

What is corrosion under insulation?

Corrosion is a type of oxidation that occurs when a material loses electrons to oxygen molecules in the surrounding air or water. In the context of industrial manufacturing, this material … Read more

What is heat transfer?

Heat transfer refers to various mechanisms by which thermal energy moves from one location to another. Engineers use a variety of tools to control the rate of heat flow in … Read more

What is phase change?

Matter exists chiefly in four forms: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. The conversion of matter from one state to another is called a phase change. This process occurs when a … Read more

What is radiation heat transfer?

Radiation heat transfer is essential to life as we know it. The transfer of heat from the sun’s surface to planet Earth is a prominent example. Since all objects above … Read more